ҴŹẹԴ Optical Communication

  1965 ͹ . (Gordon E. Moore) ˹Ҩҹ ҡó ѧҧӹdzͧԻͧء 18 ͹ҹҡóͧ ѧҡӹǹҹèԻ ͧ Intel 4004 1971 ҹ 2,300 ҡ 1972-1978 ӹǹҹԻͧ Intel ҡ 3,500 29,000 Intel 80286 1982 ҹ 134,000 1985 Intel 80386DX ҹ 275,000 1989 Intel 80486DX ҹ 1.2 ҹ ҡؤͧ Intel Pentium 1993 ҹ 3.1 ҹ Pentium Pro (1995) Pentium II (1997) ҹӹǹ 5.5 7.5 ҹ Ѻ Ҵѹ͹Ҥ .. 2011 ԻͧԵ Intel ҹ 1,000 ҹ ѹѲšͧʴѹͧѧԧҧ ҧش˹ͧ硷͹ԡҧѹ ԴҢԪ ѹͧͧʧªٻͧ Optical Optoelectronic Technologies ѭҧ Ԫ硷͹ԡ§ҧ ͧͧҴŹẹԴҧäҤ ѧѭ


ٻ 1 кѾѰ .. 1915

ҡ硷͹ԡ⿵͹

ͧѲͧ ҡ Bell Labs 1947 ҹ§֧ͧ 50 աҹ֧ 7.5 ҹ ºѺѲҡͧкŢ 1844 Ẻ Morse ѺѭҳẺԨԵ մöѭҳ§ 5 ԵԹҷ 1876 ѾѺѭҳ§Թҷ 2,000 Ե ѾԧҳԪѰ 1915 ͧҹк frequency multiplexing  ѵ 30,000 ԵԹҷ ѧٴѹѴԹ 40 1940 AT&T ѴҧѾ¡ coaxial circuits ѭҳ§ 480 voice calls ԴѹŢѭҳ (16 kilobits voice circuit) ҡѺ 7,680,000 ԵԹҷ 1956 ҧҡǿǹŹѧʡŹ Ѻѭҳ 36 voice calls ҡѺ 1,152,000 ԵԹҷ
ҡؤͧ 1962 Telstar 12 voice circuits Ѻѭҳ§ٻͧԨԵԹҷ 768,000 Ե (glass fibers) ѺѭҳѾҧاԧѹ .. 1983 ѺѭҳԹҷ 45,000,000 Ե ԡҹѾͧѰ ԴػóͻԡҴ 2.5 gigabit 1996 ԡͧѷ MCI ö٧ѷ֧ 4 ѺԹ⺹ ѹѵáѺ֧ش֧ 40,000,000,000 ԵԹҷ ѲѺѭҳͻԤѧաͧ ѧҡԵػóͻ ҡҴͧѰ ˹ѷѧçҹѭҳͻԤ ҷ Ciena Ѻҡػóҹͻԡѭ 100 gigabit ͡Ҵ˹ (1998) ҧЪԴ Lucent Technologies öѭҳͧͧдѺ terabit (tera = 108) ʶҹҾͧͻԡǺ (1997) öԴ֧ 100,000,000,000 ԵԹҷ ѹػؤͧʧ (photonics) ѵͧẹԴٻͧ grometric growth 3
ͧӹdzöǺ硵͹¡⿵͹ (photos) 硵͹ͧ ԷҾ⿵͹ ͡ҡ硵͹ҧѹѭҳ ѹͧͧ硵͹Դúǹ¡ cross-talk ҡ⿵͹ Ѵѹͧʧ⿵͹ѺʧԴԡ ͹ ⿵͹͹Ҥ ֧öԹҧ٧شٻͧʧ ⿵͹ʧ֧ԷҾԵ٧硵͹ ѭͧͧǺ硵͹ ¡͹ѹҧ硵͹⿵͹͹Ҥͧҡó繤͹ (quantum) 硵͹⿵͹ʶҹ͹Ҥ繤͹ѹͧ ҧ硷͹ԡûǹҧ͹ҤѺҨͧӤѭ ҧԡ (photonics) ͧǡͧͧҹʵͧ͹ (quantum mechanics) ʵʹͧԪ Ӥѭ͡ػóкҹӹdzͻ ҹԡ֧Сͺҹѹöҹ
ػóҧ ҹͻ (optical processing) ͹Ѻ硷͹ԡͧöԴͧ Ǩͺѧ ʹöԵҡش˹ѧաش˹ öѴáѺٻͧ logical operations ¡ѧ͡ ͧáػóԴʧ (light generator)  Ҩ (laser) Light Emiting Diode (LED) ػó ѧ硵͹ҹ semiconductor junction ҹѧҹ硵͹öдѺͧѧҹ¡ excited energy level ѹʶҾѺ硵͹ ͧѺѧҹǹԹ͡ٻͧ⿵͹ Ѻ (stable ground state) кǹѧԴ LED ͹ Ѻ 硵͹Ҿʧ͡Ẻ coherent ѹʶҹ⿵͹ءѹػó solid state lasers ֧͹ҧԷҾ ö˹ҹԵԧѵԺԡõ  (tens of gigahertz) ѹѺẹԴ ʹյػóҴ˭ǧӡѴ Ѩغѹѭѧ ѹͧش˹ͧ
1989 ѡԨ Bellcore дɰ(microlaser) á Ҵҳ 1 ͹ çٹҧ ѧҹҡ ѧѹӹǹҡѧҹҡ Ӥѭöʧ͡ҡѺͧԻѹسѵªѺҧ ͡ҡ (IC)ç
1991 ҹա ѡԨͧ 3M ôɰ solid state zine selscide lasers öʧԹԹ ѵԡó ǧҴ§ 490 (=109
1992 ѡԷʵͧ Defence Research Agency ͧѧöԤ͹(acid etched silicon)ʧ͡ٻͧ photoluminescence eleectorluminescence § GaAs(gallium arscaide)öʧǧͧ ѧҧҧҧ Ԥ͹ʧ֧͡ӤѭҧҡͧԪͻ硷͹ԡ (optoelectronics) дѺ˹
ǧѧ 1991 Դ൵ ¹ (solid state generators) ʹ(photodiode detectors) ֧شѺͧҹamplifiersͻԤʫ (optical processing)ѧͧػóšʹѺʹعͧʧǺʧ ѹ͹Ѻҹѹ˹Ǻաѹ (ҹͧ硵͹á ѹʹ óͧ⿵͹ ֧ͧʴԴ¡ nonlinear optical materials кǹͻԵʫԧ

ͻԤԵ

سѵ (linear) سѵͻԤ鹡ѺдѺͧʧ ǹ͹ (nonlinear) ʧ¹سѵҹͻԤ¡ photochromic Źͧ ״ѺʧԴسѵ nonlinear ҧѹ (ͧʧ¹Դ¹ŧҧ ͧѪѡ ֺ polarization) ѲԴ ѧҡ͡ʹ ີ (littium niobate) S-SEEDs (Symmetric Self Electro optic Effect Devices) ˹˹ (processing elements) ѺͻԤŤ


ٻ 2 S-SEED p-in-ʹ

ٻ 2 S-SEED p-in-ʹ Сͺҧ ͧ GaAs GaAIAs (gallium aluminum arsenide) ҧ ѧ˹ quantums wells Ѻ硵͹çͧѧҹѧҧػóѧٻ˹ҹ optical transmission ҧԷҾ
S-SEED ҡٻ 2 Ѵػó͹쪹Դ˹ Сͺҧ ͧ GaAs GaAlAs ҧѺѹѺ Ѵʹ (photodiode)  positive feedback ԴػóѧػóԴ˹ͻԤԵ (optical switch) ҧ͹ ҨҡѹͧԸҧ硷͹ԡ óͧʴẺ photorefractive Ѫѡõͧʧԡʫ S-SEED §ѺͻԤ I/O ҧ硷͹ԡöԴ hard nonlinearity ˹ͻԤŷҹ (NOR function) switching rate ٧ 1 GHz, S-SEED СͺѺٻͧ Optical Cellular logic Image Processio (O-CLIP) ªҹʫ ѹͧԨ ֧͹ԧҤ 1992 ػҢ˭ͧҹԡСͺ
1. Parallel Optical Memories
2. Optical Switches Light Switches öªҡẹԴͧҡͻԤҧ
3. Optical Information Processing ˹ѡͧͧͻԤԵǡѺͻԤŷҹԪԧ ѹͧͧҧẹԴäҤ

ѲҹͻԤŷҹԪԧ

šͧäҤ ѧ;पѹաҧͧͻ йҧ;पѹѧͧẺԴѴ ѲҹͻѺ ѹͧҡӡѴҹẹԴҧӤѭҡѹ˹ (optical fibers ) ѹͧҡǧͧ low-loss (1.3 ֧ 1.6 ͹) ẹԴ 40 THz (T=tera=1012)

ҾǴẹԴԸѾҡѧԴªҡش ͻԤ ѧöẹԴ좹Ҵ 40THz Ѻ;पѹҧ ͧẹԴ٧ ͻԤ෤ͧػóҧҧԡšͧ ѧԴͧ硷͹ԡԵ˹͡ѴԹҧ ҹͧ硷͹ԡԵԧҡ ͧ ºѺͻѺ͹ҹ ѭҳдѺ terabitԹҷ ֧ͧͻԤŷ ҧ Ҿʧʹ ŧ硷͹ԡҧѺҧ
ẹԴҤ١ԹմӡѴöѺ   "к" Ҿͻͧ˹ ͧӹ֧֧ͧẹԴҧ ͧ͹Ѻٴ֧ҹҹҹ͹
áѡѹԨҹͻԤҡǧ ʹҡšͧѾ Դǧҧ ѺԴش˹·ѴӤѭҧѹ
- ͻԤ Կ (Optical Amplifiers
- ͹ ҹԪԧ (Soliton Transmission)
- WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
ҹҧѹ öšдѺԵ (terabet)
ǹСͺͧͻԤ () Կ ͺ (erbium) ˹˹ͧʧҹͧԸҧ硷͹ԡŧçͧ ҧͧҹҷ ͧͧͧ British Telecom (BT) ͻԤԿ͡ʴ ö  ѹӹǹ 39.8 Gbps (G=109) ѧԹŵҧ Ѻӹǹ 43.8 ҹ ͡ҡAT&T ʴͻԤԿ (ͻԤͺǧ ) ʧẺ error and attennation free ѵ 5 Gbps ҧ 5,580
ͻԤԿԷҾҡ ͹ (soliton) ˹ʧٻԴҡóѧҧ͹ҧ ҡͧ Bell Lab ͧ AT&T 1992 ѡԨͧͧͧѧö (error free soliton) 10 Gbps ҧ 6,820
ԴմöѺͻԤ WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) ѹԸԴҧ § سѵ͹ͧǧҴҧ ѹԡѹ ֧ªҡ wavelengths ¡ҡѹŵ (multiplex) ᪹ҧ ҹ§ óͻԤԿöҹǧҴҧ ѹ
ѹͧҧ֧ѡѹͧö֧ԵԹҷôԵͧҹ WDM ֧ͧѡԷʵѺԨ ԷʶҺѹ͡ Lucent Technologies ͧѰ Pirelli ͧԵ֧ Corning Glass Ciena Ѱ ͧѷ
Ѳҡҧ෤ԤͧͻԤŷҹԪԧٴҧ§Ѻ鹰ҹ§ѺšͧԡѨغѹ ҧԺѵ ͧҧҧٴҧԴѴҡ ͧͧ "ŵ硫ԧ" ʹҾͧҴҧѧҷҹҹͻԤ

Ե 100,000,000,000 ԵԹҷ

ͧǡѡдɰѹѭҳ ѭҳҧ§ҧҹ ʹѹ (Thomas), Jeam Manrice-Emile Bandot ҧҧŢؤԴªҡش ѹͧͧŵ硫ԧؤءԡѨغѹԸҹŵ硫ԧѺԧҳԪö֧ 40,000 ҹԵԹҷ 16 ᪹ öԹҷ 2.5 ѹҹԵٻͧʧ٧ Ӥѭ ҧ͹ѹٻͧ multi-color fiber options ѹ֧öѭҳԴҧ §ͧ¡


ٻ 3 ʴ multiplexing scheme ͧʴҧͧ

šͧѭҳẺԨԵŹҨǧͧѭҳʧҡ 1 ǹǧʧҡѺ 0 ѺԸǺѭҳ¡ frequency multiplexing оԺͧʧҧ öҹѹ ѭҳٻͧ 10011 () Ѻѭҳ 11100(ᴧ) ö͹ѹѭ (ٻ 3) ѹͧ Bell Labs ͧ AT&T ҧԺѵ ѭҳٻͧ 16 ᪹ (ҧ) öԹѹٻͧǺ ҹԹô pulse ʧ 40,000 ҧ ѹͧͧҳͧѧԹ Ciena Corp ѧç 1992 С 1997) öѭҳҴ 40 ԡԵԹҷ (ԡ= 109) 100 ԡԵԹҷ 1998 ͡ҡԵ˭ Pirelli СйѷкẺ 160 gigabit ͡Ҵء Lucent Technologies (ͧ AT&T) ʴšͧҶҡ֧ 1012  ԵԹҷ ͧͧ¡ Bell Labs ѹͧ
öѵ 40,000 ҹԵԹҷٴҧͧҹ ¡Ѿѹ֧ 600,000 ŢѺóͧԹẺ 28.8 kilobit ö§Ѻ֧ 1.4 ҹ͹礪ѹ ҧɰԨͧҡ ͹ optical amplifiers ҹͧ¹ (regeneratios) Դء 19 ֧ 25 Ҥ 15,000  ­Ѱ ѭҳԴͧ¹ѧҧ ѹ 16 Դ ( 16 ) ͧԹ仡Ѻ¹ 1.2 ҹ­ѰѺҧء 20 ó optical amplifiers ͡öҧ optical am;lifiers ҧѹ֧ 75 ѹҧ¹ͧ Ҥͧ optical amplifiers ٧ Ѻ¹ ͧŧعҧ Ѳҹ Optical Communication ѧº͹ѧؤԹ ѹͧʵԴ ྐྵ (David Payne) ӹٹͧ¡ Opto Electronics Research Center ͧԷҷѹ ѧ ˹ͧͧͧšԨҹͻ硷͹ԡ

ػ

ŧͧʵҨ Դ ҧ Եѱͧ Ciena ͧʴҳѡͧͻԤ෤ѧҧ ԨѲաҡ ͧͧѵ֧شšԵѳҹ optical transmission ҡ֧ 100 gigabit/s ѹѺҡͧ Ciena Corp Ѱ֧ͧش


¹ : Է
Ѻ 150 ͹Ҥ 2541